The Higher Education System in every country is primarily run by the Universities. There are several types of Universities which provide higher education through the various colleges that are affiliated to them. The Higher Education system in India also runs through the effective functioning of Universities. In India, just like most of the other countries of the world, the Higher Education setup is dependent on both Governments funded as well as Private owned Educational Universities. The Government Universities can be supported in their administration and funding by either the Central Government of India or the respective State Government where the campus of the University is located. On the other hand, the functioning and funding of Private Universities are from Non-Government sources. These sources can be the Private Educational Companies, they can be educational societies who have charitable backgrounds work towards improving educational facilities for all sections of the society. All types of Universities in India are supposed to be recognized and granted permission by the University Grants Commission located in New Delhi. Over and above this recognition there are 15 other professional councils that have been established by the Government which look into the matters of accreditation and recognition in various professional disciplines.
The most widely found type of Universities in India is those which have been established by the Central Government. The Universities are commonly called as Central Universities. These Universities are established only when the Indian Parliament passes a bill or an act that allows competent authorities to start the University under the Central Governments watch. The funding and administration of these Universities are taken care of by the Department Of Higher Education running under the Union ministry of Human Resource And Development. As of figures from the year 2018, the total number of Central Universities in India was 49. The data for the same was provided by the University Grants Commission located in New Delhi. If figures from all the years after Independence are assessed then it can be easily traced that the educational standards of Central Universities have been better than most others.
The second type of Universities in India is those which are being run on the funds and under the administrative watch of the State Governments of the states where the University and its affiliated colleges are operating. The State Universities are established by the Legislative Assembly Acts that are passed in the Vidhan Sabha of the respective state with the majority. According to the data that was released back in 2018, the total number of operational State Universities in India is 367. According to the data given by the University Grants Commission, the oldest State Universities include the likes of the University Of Mumbai (erstwhile Bombay), the University Of Calcutta and the University Of Madras. Most of the State Universities are working towards providing affiliations to subordinate colleges which then carry out the dispensation of educational facilities for the courses that the University has approved and the University Grants Commission has allowed. Most of the State Government Universities in India are not very well equipped. Even if we compare their functioning with the other Central Universities itself and not the ones which are operating outside the country then also we can observe that the standard of education which they are offering the students is not as high as it should be.
The third type is the Deemed Universities. A Deemed University is described by the University Grants Commission as a University which the UGC has recommended for being granted the autonomy status by the Department Of Higher Education of the Union ministry of Human Resource And Development.
The fourth type of University is Private University. A Private University just like all other kinds of Universities will be granted recognition by the University Grants Commission but they are not allowed to give affiliations to colleges that are not functional inside the University campus. They can grant degrees independently and are funded by Private entities only.